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What is meant by WPS, PQR, WPQ in Welding ?


What is meant by WPS?

WPS = Welding Procedure Specification

A WPS is a document that describes how welding is to be carried out in production. Its purpose is to aid the planning and quality control of the welding operation. They are recommended for all welding operations and most application codes and standards make them mandatory.

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What is meant by PQR?

PQR = Procedure Qualification Record

A PQR is required when it is necessary to demonstrate that your company has the ability to produce welds possessing the correct mechanical and metallurgical properties.

A welding procedure must be qualified in accordance with the requirements of an appropriate welding procedure standard, such as ASME Sec IX, as follows:

1. Produce a welding procedure specification (WPS) as stated above.

2. Weld a test piece in accordance with the requirements of your specification. The joint set up, welding and visual examination of the completed weld should be witnessed by a certified welding inspector such as an AWS certified CWI or an Inspection Body. The details of the test such as the welding current, pre-heat etc., must be recorded during the test.

3. Once the welding is complete the test piece must be subject to destructive and non destructive examination such as radiography and mechanical tests as defined by the welding procedure standard. This work must be carried out in a qualified laboratory but the Inspection Body may require witnessing the tests and viewing any radiographs.

4. If the test is successful you or the test body completes the appropriate documents which the test body’s surveyor signs and endorses.

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What is WPQR?

WPQR = Welder Performance Qualification Record

Once the procedure is approved it is necessary to demonstrate that all your welders working to it have the required knowledge and skill to put down a clean sound weld. If the welder has satisfactorily completed the procedure test then he is automatically approved but each additional welder must be approved by completing an approval test to an appropriate standard such as ASME Sec IX as follows:

1. Complete a weld test as stated above. The test should simulate production conditions and the welding position should be the position that the production welds are to be made in or one more severe.

2. For maximum positional approval a pipe inclined at 45 degrees (referred to as the 6G position) approves all positions except vertical down.

3. Test the completed weld in accordance with the relevant standard to ensure that the weld is clean and fully fused.

4. For a butt weld this is normally a visual examination followed by radiography or bend tests.

5. Once the test is completed the necessary forms have to be completed by you or the test body and signed by the test body’s surveyor.

6. Note that any changes that require a new welding procedure (WPS) may also apply to the welders approval, refer to the referencing code/ standard for precise details

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